ピトス（大きな貯蔵瓶）は、前門の東側にあり、後宮殿期（紀元前1450年〜1100年）に属し、後で貯蔵に使用したようです。 SOUTH PROPYLAEUM
The ‘South Propylaeum’ as we see it today is a result of the restoration of Evans who put up a copy of the ‘Cup-Bearer’ fresco here (Fig.1).
The wall painting depicted a man holding a libation vase (rhyton). lts theme is connected with the “Procession Fresco” which, according to Evans, reached here the ‘South Propylaeum’.
The pithoi (large storage jars) on the east side of the Propylaeum belong to the Postpalatial Period (1450-1100 B.C.), and indicate that the area was later used for storage.
一連の廊下、広々としたホールと小さな部屋が あり、大階段に続きます。宮殿がクノッソス王の席であると信じたエバンスは、王室の居住区がこの場所だと仮定していました。 East wing, “Grand Staircase”
A large part of the East Wing cannot be seen from the Central Court as it is built into the side of the hill on top of which lies the rest of the Palace. It is one of the most interesting parts of the palace because two storeys are preserved below the levelof the Central Court. Today, a large part of it has been reconstructed in concrete.
The storeys are connected with one another by means of a system of stairs known as the “Grand Staircase”. The staircase was found during the excavation in its original position (Fig.1,2). There is a total of four flights of stairs, two for each storey.
The two lower flights are preserved as they were found. The steps are broad and deep, with a gentle incline that makes for an easy ascent. The staircase is lit by a large lightwell and surrounded by a colonnade of wooden columns.
A series of corridors, spacious halls and small rooms is connected to the Grand Staircase. Evans, who believed that the Palace was the seat of the king of Knossos hypothesized that the residential quarters of the Royal family lay in this part of the site.
ミノア時代の政治組織に関する考古学的情報はごく限定しています。それにもかかわらず、ミノス王に関して、また王権制度のエバンスの解釈に関して、神話的伝統は、宮殿やその空間に影響を与えてきました。「王家居住区（Royal Apartments）」はこの地域に位置しています。 「双斧の間」（Hall of the Double Axes）
「女王のメガロン」 「双斧の間（Hall of the Axes）」の近くには、小さなホールがあり、同様に配置され、豊かに装飾されています（図2）。エバンスはそれが女王に属していたに違いないと思いました。イルカやダンスする女性が書いていたフレスコ画の断片が見つかりました。部屋は大きく復元され、井戸の絵画は壁に貼られています（図3）。部屋の終わりに、1列の低い隔壁が小空間を作り出しました。それは粘土の “風呂”の部分がそこに見つかったので、 “女王の浴室”だと考えられました。 「女王のメガロン」に、廊下が準備と洗濯の場として解釈された部屋として加わります。
The “Hall of the Double Axes” and the “Queen’s Megaron”
Archaeological information concerning political organization during the Minoan period is very limited. Nevertheless, the mythological tradition concerning King Minos and Evans’s notions concerning the institution of kingship have influenced interpretations or the Palace and its spaces. The “Royal Apartments” have been located in this region.
THE “HALL OF THE DOUBLE AXES”
The “Hall of the Double Axes” (Fig.1) was so named by Evans due to the double-axe signs engraved on the walls of the light-well at its rear. He also thought that it was the place or residence of the king of Knossos.
The central area has openings on three sides and is therefore called a”polythyron” (system with multiple doorways). lt has a slab floor and its walls were embellished with gypsum slabs ard frescoes, The area between the “polythyron” and the lightwell was used as a reception hall. Traces of a wooden construction were found here. Evans reconstructed a wooden throne at this spot.
According to the archaeological finds the arrangement of the apartments on the upper foor was comparable with those on the ground floor.
The “QUEEN’S MEGARON”
Near the “Hall of the Double Axes” is a smaller hall, comparably arranged and richly decorated (Fig.2). Evans thought that it must have belonged to the Queen. Fragments of frescoes with dolphins and dancing ladies were found. The room is largely restored and copies of the well Paintings have been put up on the walls (Fig.3). At the end of the room,a low partition wall with one column created a small space. It was thought that it was the “queen’s Bathroom” since pieces of a clay “bath” were found there.
A corridor joins the “Queen’s Megaron” with rooms that have been interpreted as places of preparation and washing.
“SCHOOL ROOM”, “LAPIDARY’S WORKSHOP
Here is the so-called “School Room”, an area where, according to Evans, scribes were taught to write on clay tablets. He supposes that they kneaded the clay in the built mortar next to bench (fig.1). It is more likely, however, that was a workshop for ceramic or wall-painting,
Behind the “School Room” is the “Lapidary’s Workshop”, where blocks of unworked or semi-worked lapis lacedaemoniae (spartan basalt) and stone tools were brought to light.
According to Evans, the main workshop lay on the upper floor from which vases and a large stone amphora had fallen to ground floor.
「巨大瓶の倉庫」と「東の要塞」 あなたの前に見える巨大なピトイ（貯蔵瓶）は、エバンスがつけた名前「巨大瓶の倉庫」（図1）という場所にありました。この倉庫は、宮殿の古い部分の1つです。 ピトイは、大きさ、取っ手の数、ロープや円板を使ったレリーフ装飾の豊かさで区別されます。 右側には、エバンスによって再建した階段があり、下に行くと宮殿の東の入り口になります。 入り口は強固な構造で「要塞」の印象を与えます（図2）。この点から、いわゆる「王家の大邸宅」という宮殿時代の重要な建物に簡単に到達できます。主要な考古学的サイトの外にありました。 The “Magazines of the giant pithoi” AND THE “EAST BASTION” The great pithoi (storage jars) you see before you, were found in a place named by Evans, the “Magazines of the Giant Pithoi” (Fig.1), These magazines are one of the older parts of the Palace. The pithoi are set apart by their size, number of handles and the richness of their relief decoration with ropes and discs. On the right you see a staircase which has been reconstructed by Evans and descends to the east entrance of the Palace. The entrance is a robust construction that gives the impression of a “bastion” (Fig.2). From this point it would have been easy to reach an important building of the palatial period, the so-called “Royal Villa” which lies outside the main archaeological site.
Iraklion is the largest city of Crete and one of Greece’s major urban centers. Its development begun in the wake of the 9th century AD (in antiquity, Knossos was the island’s most important centre, followed by Gortyn). In later times, Iraklion came under Arabic, Venetian and Ottoman rule; its conquerors initially gave it the name Khandaq or Handak, which was corrupted to Candia. During the 2004 0lympic Games, the city of Iraklion provided one of the venues for the football tournament. Archaeological evidence shows that Iraklion probably arose during the 9th century B.C. and was named in tribute to the Greek goddess Rhea, mother of Zeus. And like most Mediterranean cities, Iraklion has a long and turbulent history. Officially founded by the Saracens in the 9th century, the Byzantine Empire invaded in 961 only to lose control to the Crusaders who sold Crete to the Venetians in 1211 for a thousand silver coins. Iraklion finally flourished under the Venetians. Throughout the city you’ll find stunning reminders of their influences the Loggia, Venetian Walls, and Fountain of Morosini are just a few must-see examples. But Iraklion is probably best known as the gateway to the breathtaking 4,000 year-old Minoan ruins at Knossos and to the famous windmills stretched across the Lassithi Plateau.
Among the most outstanding sights of Iraklion are the fortification walls that delimit the “old city”. The first fortifications were built by the Arabs and were later reinforced by the Venetians. From the seven bastions, only the Martinengo bastion survives to this day; there visitors will find the tomb of the renowned writer N Kazantzakis, overlooking the city. From the four gates to the city, only Chanioporta with the characteristic winged Lion of Saint Marc and the New Gate (1587) at the southern side survive today. In the old (Venetian) port, next to the modern facilities, one can see the vaulted tarsanades where ships used to be built, while the westem side is dominated by the Koule fortress. In the heart of the city there are many monurnents dating to the Middle Ages, a period in which Iraklion witnessed great prosperity. From the port, ascending 25 Avgoustou (August) street, one reaches a square where the church of Agios Titos is found, while next to it lies the Venetian Loggia, a magnificent, ornate arcaded Venetian building decorated with blazons, and trophies which served as a meeting Place for the Duke and other noblemen during the Venetian period.
A typical feature of Iraklion is its Venetian and Turkish fountains, scattered all around the city. The most famous one is the Venetian style orozini-fountain, also known as the Lions, a landmark for local inhabitants and visitors alike. Other noteworthy Venetian fountains are the Bembo fountain on Kornaros Square, the Sagredo fountain built in the northwestern corner of the Loggia, and Priuli fountain located near the port. Iraklion today is living between the fast moving currents of regeneration and a deep desire to maintain links with a past. Both these strands define its character. ln the last hundred years alone, we have seen huge changes which can be quite easily followed, in buildings and streets that reflect the changing fortunes of Crete. The “old town” areas of the city, established from mediaeval times, now offer visitors some fantastic walks in the heart of the city.
SHUTTLE BUS SERVICE IN HERAKLION
Today in Heraklion guests may use complimentary shuttle buses provided by the locaI port authority to reach the terminal, walking is not permitted between berths. The shuttle buses will run continuously from the ship beginning at 8:00 am. with the last shuttle returning to the ship at 10:30 pm. Shuttle buses are operated on a first come, first served basis and may depart earlier than scheduled if filled to full capacity. lnterval between shuttles is approximate and Oceania Cruises are not liable for any unforeseen delays or changes to the shuttle schedule.
Explore the excavated palace of the mythological king Minos and other ruins in Knossos using 3D software that shows how the structures appeared thousands of years ago.
After departing from the pier, you will enjoy a brief drive inland to Knossos, once the capital of ancient Minoan Crete. The area was first inhabited in the seventh millennium B.C., and its grandeur has been slowly revealed through archaeological excavation. The Palace that once stood here was known as the seat of power of the legendary King Minos, and the remains of this UNESCO World Heritage site reflect the glory of former times.
From 1900 to 1931, British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans supervised the excavation of the Palace of Knossos and the surrounding area, and you will see firsthand some of the treasures that have been uncovered. There are royal quarters, shrines, a royal villa, workshops, banquet halls and other preserved monuments from the Minoan civilization.
Portions of the ruins have been reconstructed using modern materials to show how they appeared in ancient times. For a more in-depth view of the structures, simply use the provided electronic tablet with 3D augmented-reality software. Just point the tablet’s camera at a ruin, and you will see the structure as it originally stood centuries ago.
After a thorough walking tour of Knossos, you will returns to Heraklion to sightsee on your own. You might browse the boutiques or seek out highlights such as the 17th-century Morosini Fountain in Lions Square before returning to the pier.
Please note: The guided Portion of this tour involves approximately 1½ hours of walking over uneven pavement and grounds. There is also approx. 15 steps to negotiate. The tour is not available to wheelchair guests. Those guests with mobility concerns are
cautioned only to participate to the extent of their personal stamina and ability. Weather appropriate clothing; sun cap; sunglasses; and flat, comfortable walking shoes arc recommended.